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Top-level domain (TLD) is one of the top-level domains in the online domain name system after a domain name. Top-level domain names are included in the root directory of the domain name. For all domains at the lowest level, it is the last part of a domain name, that is, the last empty label for a fully trained domain name. For example, in the domain name www.example.com., The top-level domain says com. The responsibility for managing multiple high-level domains is delegated to certain organizations by the ICANN multi-stakeholder Internet community, which uses the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and manages the root management of the DNS.

As of 2015, the IANA classifies the following groups of high-level domains

  • Advanced Infrastructure Center (ARPA): This group contains a single domain, Address, and Route Parameter Location. Administered by IANA on behalf of the Internet Engineering Task Force for the various purposes stated in the publication of the Comment Request.
  • Top-level domains (gTLDs): Top-level domains with three or more characters
  • Higher-level domains (gr-TLDs): These domains are managed under the official ICANN registered registrars.
  • Top-tier sponsored domains (TLDs): These domains are proposed and funded by independent agencies or organizations that establish and enforce laws that limit the eligibility of TLD use. Usage is based on the ideas of the community theme; these domains are managed under accredited ICANN registrars.
  • Advanced country code (ccTLD) domains: Two-character domains established by countries or regions. Except for some historical variations, the code for any location is the same as its ISO 3166 two-letter code.
  • Advanced country code (IDN ccTLD) domains: ccTLDs in non-Latin character sets (e.g., Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, or Chinese).
  • Explore high-level domains (tTLDs): These domains are listed under .test for testing purposes in the IDN development process; these domains are not in the root zone.

Countries designated in the Domain Name Program with a two-letter ISO country code; there are exceptions, however (e.g., .uk). This domain is therefore more commonly known as high-level country code (ccTLD) domains. Since 2009, countries with non-Latin scripts may apply for country-specific high-level country code names, which are displayed in the end-user interface or their language but use the ASCII domain name translated into the Punycode Domain Name Program.

Standard standard domains (previously classified) initially contained gov, edu, com, mil, org, net. Some common TLDs have been added, such as information.

The official list of current TLDs in the root area is published on the IANA website at https://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/.

International codes for TLDs

An international country code (IDN ccTLD) domain is a domain with a specially coded domain name displayed on the end-user application, such as a web browser, its native language text or characters (such as Arabic characters), or an alphabetic writing system ( like Chinese characters). IDN ccTLDs are an international domain name (IDN) application for high-quality Internet domains provided by countries, or private regions.

ICANN began accepting applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009, [15] and introduced the first set of Domain Names Systems in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United States. The Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 documents.

Infrastructure base

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The ARPA domain was the first high-profile internet site. It was intended for temporary use, assisting in converting the names of traditional ARPANET hosts to the domain name system. However, after it has been used for DNS retrieval, it is unreasonable to discontinue it and is being used today specifically for internet infrastructure purposes such as IP-4 in-addr. ARPA and IP66 IP, URI. ARPA and. ARPA for Dynamic Delegation Discovery System, and e164.arpa for drawing telephone numbers based on NAPTR DNS records. For historical reasons, arpa is sometimes regarded as a standard high-level standard.

Saved domains

A domain name is reserved for the Internet Engineering Task Force as the domain name used exclusively for each authority to request a Comment (RFC) 6761. . RFC 6761 reserved the following four domain names to avoid confusion and conflict. [17] Any such reserved use of those TLDs should not occur in production networks that use a global domain name system:

example: reserved for use in examples

invalid: reserved for use in invalid domain names

localhost: reserved to avoid conflict with the common use of localhost as hostname

test: reserved for use in tests

RFC 6762 restricts the use of .local domain names that can be resolved by Multicast DNS name modification protocol.

RFC 7686 restricts the use of onion in the certification names of Tor onion services. These terms can only be resolved by a Tor client for using the onion path to protect users’ anonymity.

Proposed domains

Additional information: Highly recommended domain

About the end of 2000, ICANN discussed and eventually introduced aero, biz, coop, information, museum, name, and TLD specialists. The owners of the site argued that the same TLD should be made available to adult websites and pornography to resolve the content of online content, to address the obligation of US service providers under the US Communications Decency Act of 1996. Several options were proposed including xxx, sex, and adult. The high-quality xxx domain was finally live in 2011. [catation needed]

The old proposal had seven new gTLDs: arts, firm, information, nom, rec, shop, and web. Later biz, information, museum, and names cover most of these old proposals.

During the 32nd ICANN International Conference in Paris in 2008, ICANN initiated a new TLD naming policy process to take “an important step forward in the introduction of standard high-level domains”. The program has envisioned the availability of many new or proposed domains, as well as new applications and implementation processes. Viewers believed the new rules could lead to the registration of hundreds of new gTLDs.

On June 13, 2012, ICANN announced nearly 2,000 applications for top-level domains, which were first rolled out in 2013. The first seven – bicycle, clothing, guru, holding, plumbing, singles, and jobs – were released in 2014.

Rejected domains

ICANN has rejected several proposed domains from home and company due to disputes over gTLDs used on internal networks.

The investigation into the dispute was conducted at the request of ICANN by Interisle Consulting. The resulting report would be known as Name Collision, first reported to ICANN 47.